بررسی همولوژی کروموزومی بین سه گونه آژیلوپس (Aegilops sp) ایرانی حامل ژنوم D و گندم نان (Triticum aestivum)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، کرج.

چکیده

ژنوم D یکی از سه ژنوم اصلی در گندم نان Triticum aestivum نقش مهمی در بسیاری از صفات زراعی گندم نان بعهده دارد. این ژنوم از گونه Aegilops tauschii به گندم نان به‌ارث رسیده ‌است. علاوه بر آن گونه‌های A. cylindrica و A. crassa نیز ژنوم D را حمل می‌کنند و در ایران گسترش دارند. به منظور مطالعه همولوژی بین ژنوم‌ D در میان این سه گونه با ژنوم D گندم نان و بررسی امکان انتقال ژن از این گونه‌ها به گندم زراعی از هر گونه 13 نمونه و در مجموع 52 نمونه از نواحی مختلف انتخاب گردید. در مزرعه هیبریدهای بین‌گونه‌ای بین نمونه‌های آژیلوپس و گندم نان هر دسته تهیه گردید. سپس وضعیت جفت شدن کروموزومهای میوزی در خوشه‌های جوان هیبریدهای بین‌گونه‌ای مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که امکان تهیه هیبریدهای بین‌ این گونه‌ها حداقل با استفاده از روشهای نجات جنین وجود دارد. ژنوم گونه A. tauschii شباهت زیادی با ژنوم D گندم نان نشان داد، به طوری که کروموزومهای دوگونه قادر بودند با یکدیگر جفت شده و به طور متوسط 9/11 کیاسما در هر سلول تشکیل دهند، اما میزان جفت شدن کروموزومهای گونه A. cylindrica با گندم نان کمتر بوده و به‌طور متوسط 37/7 کیاسما در هر سلول مشاهده گردید. شباهت کروموزومهای فرم تتراپلوئید گونه A. crassa با گندم نان نیز بسیار ناچیز بوده و کروموزومهای این گونه به طور متوسط تنها 42/3 کیاسما با کروموزومهای گندم نان تشکیل می‌دادند. با این حال، حتی تشکیل تعداد کمی کیاسما در هیبریدهای بین‌گونه‌ای امکان انتقال ژن از این گونه‌ها را به گندم نان فراهم می‌نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


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