اثرات القاء پلی‌پلوئیدی در شرایط درون شیشه‌ای بر برخی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی گیاه نوروزک ((Salvia leriifolia Benth.

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیات علمی دانشگاه ارومیه

2 کارشناس ارشد، علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

چکیده

نوروزک (.Salvia leriifolia Benth) گیاهی علفی و چندساله، متعلق به تیره نعناعیان که در سال‌های اخیر خواص مختلف دارویی این گیاه شناخته شده است. پلی‌پلوئیدی درون شیشه‌ای گیاهان دارویی در سال‌های اخیر یکی از موضوعات جالب توجه در بیوتکنولوژی و کشت بافت گیاهی می‌باشند. بر این اساس، با استفاده از غلظت‌های مختلف کلشی‌سین (0، 05/0، 1/0، 2/0 و 5/0 درصد) در سه سطح زمانی 24، 48 و 72 ساعت، القای پلی‌پلوئیدی در جوانه­های انتهایی گیاهچه‌های باززا شده نوروزکمطالعه شد. برای شناسایی گیاهان پلی­پلوئید، خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی، بیوشیمایی و سیتوژنتیکی بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد کهتأثیر تیمارهای مختلف کلشی­سین بر درصد زنده­مانی گیاهچه­های حاصل در سطح احتمال 1 درصد معنی­دار می‎باشد. با مقایسه تیمارهای 05/0، 1/0، 2/0 و 5/0 درصد کلشی­سین، بالاترین میزان زنده­مانی ریزنمونه­ها در تیمار 05/0 درصد برابر با 44/84 درصد مشاهده شد. همچنین بالاترین میزان مرگ گیاهچه، در غلظت 5/0 درصد کلشی­سین ثبت شد. القاء تتراپلوئیدی سبب تغییرات مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی، سیتولوژیکی و ترکیبات شیمیایی از قبیل افزایش طول و عرض روزنه در سطح زیرین برگ، عرض برگ، سطح برگ، میزان کلروفیل برگ، میزان آنتی­اکسیدان کل، فنل کل و فعالیت آنزیم­های آنتی­اکسیدانی شد (آنزیم­­های کاتالاز و آسکوربات پراکسیداز)، همچنین موجب کاهش طول برگ و تراکم روزنه در واحد سطح برگ شد. تعداد کروموزوم گیاهان دیپلوئید برابر با 22 عدد (2n=2x=22) و در گیاهان تتراپلوئید برابر با 44 (2n=4x=44) بود. بنابراین می‌توان بیان کرد که  کلشی‌سین به‎طور مؤثری قابلیت القای پلی‌پلوئید در گیاه نوروزک را دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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